On the morning of October 12, 1915, the 49-year-old British nurse Edith Cavell is executed by a German firing squad in Brussels, Belgium.

Find out why below…

A few facts about World War One…

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World War 1 began on July 28, 1914 and lasted until November 11, 1918. Differences in foreign policies were to blame, although the immediate cause was the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand who was a Hungarian Prince, a Bohemian Prince and an Austrian Archduke. He was the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary from 1896 until his death.
King George V (Great Britain), Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany) and the wife, Empress Alexandra, of Tsar Nicholas II (Russia) grandchildren of Britain’s Queen Victoria who was the longest reigning monarch in history until September 9th this year (2015) when our Queen Elizabeth 11 will become the longest reigning monarch.
Soldiers fought largely in trenches during the war, and thousands suffered from stress, known as shell shock. The British and French trenches were often squalid, whereas the German trenches were almost luxurious in comparison, with bunks and decent cooking facilities.
It was also one of the bloodiest battles of the war, or of any war before or since. An estimated 1,000,000 men were killed or wounded, including about 485,000 British and French troops including about 30,000 in just one day.
The traditional family structure was completely changed by the First World War as many married women were forced into the workplace.

There was even the likes of Caroline Haslett who was an engineer (someone who makes or works with machines and other mechanical equipment).
She wanted more women to be scientists and engineers and she believed that electricity could change women's lives for the better and free them from exhausting housework. Caroline proved that women could do technical jobs just as well as men and could have careers in new fields of work.
Some examples of weekly paid positions include:
  • Dispensers (who must be qualified), £1 10s a week
  • Head clerks, £1 15s
  • Clerks, £1 6s – not required to know shorthand or
  • Head cooks, £1 15s (and three meals a day)
  • Cooks, £1 (and three meals a day).
The two main sides were the Allies, which included France, Great Britain and Russia; and Germany and Austria-Hungary. In total, 30 countries were involved in the conflict. Italy, once part of the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, fought on the side of the Allies.
Queen Victoria reigned from June, 1837 until her death in January, 1901.
By the end of WW1, over 9 million soldiers had been killed, and another 21 million wounded. The Battle of the Somme was one of the largest and most well known battles of the war. It lasted from 1st July to 18th November 1916 on the banks of the Somme River, in France.
Around 11 per cent of the population of France was killed or wounded during the war. About 116,000 Americans were killed, even though the US was only in the war for about 7 months.
The war meant women had to take on a number of traditionally male roles. Their ability to do this led to a change in attitudes.
Many women were given the opportunity to work in paid positions throughout the war, acting as dispensers, clerks, storekeepers, and cooks, in the hope that thousands of men could be released for active service.

Under the ‘general service’ scheme in September 1915, women could apply for civic positions as well as any other jobs that might be suitable such as motor-car drivers or vegetable maids.
More than 1.6 million women took on traditionally male jobs during World War One
Another 100,000 worked in transport - a staggering 555% increase on pre-war numbers
One, Edith Cavell, was executed by the Germans in 1915 for saving hundreds of lives
In July 1914, before the war broke out there were 3.2 million women in employment. This had risen to 5 million by January 1918.
The Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) in 1917 and finally, the Women’s Royal Airforce (WRA) in 1918 followed the WRNS. While most never came too close to the front line, there was one female soldier - 20-year-old Dorothy Lawrence, a journalist who joined the British Expeditionary Force in 1915 by passing herself off as a man.
On Christmas Eve, 1914, both sides declared an unofficial truce and sang Christmas carols to each other. It is said that football matches were played in no-man’s land (the area between the German and British) trenches, and German and British soldiers exchanged food and souvenirs.
Cannons and artillery were often extremely loud. In 1917, the explosives used to destroy a bridge in France could be heard over 130 miles away in London.
Tanks were so called because of early attempts to disguise them as water tanks. They were also known as male and female tanks; male tanks had cannons and female tanks had machine guns.
950,000 worked in dangerous munitions factories, producing 80% of the UK's armaments
Ohers worked close to the front line as part of the VAD and FANY nursing corps
Many more women did hard heavy work, including working on the railways, ship building, furnace stoking and working in munitions factories manufacturing shells. These types of jobs had excluded women prior to the war.
World War I also saw the female members of the army, navy and air force don their uniforms for the first time, beginning with the Royal Navy who set up the Women's Royal Navy Service in 1916.
During World War 1, dogs guarded important places, carried messages and took first aid supplies out to wounded soldiers on the battlefield.
This ceasefire was known as the Christmas Truce but the following Christmas sentries on both sides had orders to shoot any soldier who did this.
Many new weapons were invented or first used during World War 1. Big Bertha was one of the most famous; it was a 48ton gun capable of firing a shell over 9 miles. It took 200 men several hours to assemble the gun.